Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late 20th century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes.[73][74][24][75][76] Dutch Cannabis researcher E.P.M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.[36] They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus consists of a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se.

A 2016 review of animal studies indicated that cannabidiol has potential as an anxiolytic for relief of anxiety-related disorders and fear.[13] Reviews of preliminary research showed cannabidiol has potential for improving addictive disorders and drug dependence, although as of 2016, they indicated limited high-quality evidence for anti-addictive effects in people.[85][86][87]
A 2012 review found that the THC content in marijuana had increased worldwide from 1970 to 2009.[146] It is unclear, however, whether the increase in THC content has caused people to consume more THC or if users adjust based on the potency of the cannabis. It is likely that the higher THC content allows people to ingest less tar. At the same time, CBD levels in seized samples have lowered, in part because of the desire to produce higher THC levels and because more illegal growers cultivate indoors using artificial lights. This helps avoid detection but reduces the CBD production of the plant.[147]
It is the distinction between CBD derived from marijuana and CBD from hemp oil that sets them apart. Marijuana is harvested for its buds, which contains psychoactive properties known to produce stoned effects. When it comes to hemp, the stalks and seed are the targets of this crop. These plants do not contain enough THC to get anyone high. In fact, for cannabis to be considered hemp, it must have no more than 0.3 percent THC.
Each and every bottle is grown and processed with the same standards as the last guaranteeing quality and assuring potency. Made from CBD rich hemp flower sun grown in Oregon and MCT oil, Rosebud is proud to be a Vegan, Gluten Free, Non-GMO, Organic, and Sustainably Processed CO2 extract. Choose between our three potencies: 350mg, 700mg and 1000mg. 
A 2015 meta analysis found that, although a longer period of abstinence was associated with smaller magnitudes of impairment, both retrospective and prospective memory were impaired in cannabis users. The authors concluded that some, but not all, of the deficits associated with cannabis use were reversible.[110] A 2012 meta analyses found that deficits in most domains of cognition persisted beyond the acute period of intoxication, but was not evident in studies where subjects were abstinent for more than 25 days.[111] Few high quality studies have been performed on the long-term effects of cannabis on cognition, and results were generally inconsistent.[112] Furthermore, effect sizes of significant findings were generally small.[111] One review concluded that, although most cognitive faculties were unimpaired by cannabis use, residual deficits occurred in executive functions.[113] Impairments in executive functioning are most consistently found in older populations, which may reflect heavier cannabis exposure, or developmental effects associated with adolescent cannabis use.[114] One review found three prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between self reported cannabis use and intelligence quotient (IQ). The study following the largest number of heavy cannabis users reported that IQ declined between ages 7–13 and age 38. Poorer school performance and increased incidence of leaving school early were both associated with cannabis use, although a causal relationship was not established.[106] Cannabis users demonstrated increased activity in task-related brain regions, consistent with reduced processing efficiency.[115]
Hi Lauren I've just started today with 250mg cbd oil. I'm starting low to see what happens. I've nerve damage across buttocks from a laminectomy. I've not been able to sit for 5 years. I've recently started with a muscle spasm in my left buttock and the muscle above is painful. It is only the first day, also tried a cbd night time tea as well. Do change in muscle pain so tight on my left hand side. How long before felt it starting to work please. I'm trying not to expect changes straightaway. I also take 1100mg gabapentin and 30mg amitriptyline and I hate both of them - they both can cause muscle tightness affecting the nerve. Thank you Lyn
Generally speaking, most marijuana producers and sellers (especially on the black market) don’t test for contaminants (metals, pesticides, bacteria, etc.). Rick Simpson Hemp Oil is actually more a method of extraction than it is a specific product. People use the Rick Simpson method with hundreds of different strains of marijuana, so the THC, CBD and other cannabinoid content of the final oil always vary greatly, depending on the cannabis the consumers are acquiring. Usually what’s used for Rick Simpson oil is a strain with an inferior CBD content (and high THC), because that’s what the vast amount of marijuana is nowadays.
To determine the purity and potency of every batch of Hemp cannabis oil each individual extraction is analyzed through a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system, a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) system, and other methods to test for aerobic organisms, yeast, fungus, E. coli, pesticides, heavy toxic metals, cannabinoid potency, and terpenes.
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Hi, I had ovarian cancer stage 2 and went to do chemotherapy for 16 times in 2014. It came back last year 2016 but I did not do chemotherapy or radiation therapy as suggested by the doctor. I am taking hormone therapy at the moment. I would like to use cannabis oil but which one and how much CBD and how much THC should I take for ovarian cancer? Can anyone give some idea?. Thank you very much.


There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used.[175] The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and filtered to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically.[176]
Although CBD oil and hemp oil are both low in THC, the difference in the amount of CBD these products contain is huge. Hemp oil has only traces of CBD (around 3.5 percent,) while CBD oil can have up to 20 percent. It is the higher concentration that makes CBD beneficial in the treatment of various health disorders. Hemp oil based CBD products do not contain enough of the compound to be considered much more than a health supplement. These are the products found in health food stores all over the country – legal in all 50 states.
First, it’s important to understand that CBD oil will not cause you to experience a euphoric effect, or “high.” Because CBD oil comes from cannabis (hemp), a common misconception is that it is psychoactive. The truth is, both hemp and marijuana are cannabis plants. Unlike medical marijuana products, CBD oil that’s derived from hemp, however, contains only trace amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the well-known psychoactive cannabinoid.
Actually, no. BUT...there’s a very good reason for that! Because Functional Remedies’ hemp oil, Hemp Tincture and other sustainable hemp products are classified as dietary supplements by the FDA, we can’t make any specific claims as to what diseases and conditions they treat. So, while we are unable to speak to specific diseases and conditions, there are large (and growing) array of sites, online resources, and scientific research from around the world that point to the many beneficial uses of hemp oil. We also encourage you to sign up for our email list and we’ll send you lots of valuable information about hemp as well as updates and news that are cutting edge.
Thousands of people have learned about the healing benefits of CBD, resulting in unprecedented interest in this supplement. People are using CBD oil to ease their chronic pain, and relieve symptoms of conditions ranging from arthritis to depression. Unlike its close cousin, psychoactive cannabis (‘marijuana’), CBD oil won’t make you feel high — but many users report significant relief of their symptoms. Even the World Health Organization declared CBD oil safe and worthy of deeper research.
Cannabidiol is currently a class B1 controlled drug in New Zealand under the Misuse of Drugs Act. It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In 2017 the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval. Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health.
For example, the six hemp oil companies the FDA had investigated in February had explicitly advertised CBD products for use in the “cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of diseases.” The agency sent warning letters to the companies, ordering them to change their product labeling or face potential legal action. Then, in May, the FDA announced it was excluding products containing cannabidiol from its definition of dietary supplements altogether. Hard, the spokesman for Medical Marijuana, Inc., said the company views “these developments as positive because this allows the debate regarding CBD to come to the forefront.” He characterized the FDA’s May announcement as “an opinion” and added, “Medical Marijuana, Inc. and HempMeds, along with industry associations, are working on determining how we can come to a mutual understanding on the matter with the FDA.”
I suffer fr migraines. Currently having Botox injections every three months for the last three years. This has helped went fr 24 to 30 migraines a month to 6 to 8 , now I'm back up to 14 to 20 a month. My doctor thought CBD oil might help. I have also started having anxiety attacks for a year now. I'm really confused with the dosages. Any thoughts would b helpful
According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.[106]
RSHO™ CBD hemp oil is available in four varieties of high-quality, pure cannabidiol oil, including Green Label, Blue Label, Gold Label, and Special Blend. RSHO™ contains between 50mg and 190mg of cannabidiol per 0.5 gram serving. Each of the pure CBD hemp oil varieties come in 3 gram and 10 gram applicators. For regular users, 3 packs and 6 packs of applicators are available.
Pharmacists have since moved to metric measurements, with a drop being rounded to exactly 0.05 mL (50 μL, that is, 20 drops per milliliter) - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drop_(unit)1oz is 30 mL1000mg/30mL = 33.3 mg/mL CBD concentration20 drops * .05 mL/drop = 1mL10 drops * .05 mL/drop = .5mLyou take 33.3 mg in the morning and 16.65mg at nightI might suggest taking 50mg in the morning: 50mg / 33.3 mg/mL = 1.50 mL 30 dropstry it for a couple days and see how it helps
Whether you’re interested in learning how industrial hemp-derived CBD is made, how it helps patients, or what the future holds for CBD products, share your queries by leaving a comment and your questions will be addressed in future educational pieces about CBD oil. Your questions are important not just for your benefit, but to enrich the minds of patients all around the world. By spreading knowledge and information about cannabis, hemp, CBD, and other cannabinoids, we’re supporting safe growth of the cannabis industry while at the same time educating the masses about a misunderstood plant.
Combining the powerful properties of CBD with a unique mix of herbs and other all-natural ingredients, this Hemp Signature Blend from Bluebird Botanicals offers real and effective relief from the symptoms of inflammation. Designed to support your body and soothe your joints, this is CBD oil redefined. The fascinating inclusion of frankincense carteri, black cumin seed, cold-pressed oil, and rosemary extract marks this out as something special.

The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis. Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics. Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions. Indica designates shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Ruderalis is the informal name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe and Central Asia.


Our products are made by infusing extract from hemp into them.   Many brands use only cbd that has been removed from the extract.  It is much less inexpensive to use CBD Isolate in the making of products.  (“CBD Isolate” is cbd that has been removed from the extract)  However, Highland Pharms CBD Hemp Oil products receive only Full Spectrum CBD Extract.  This means you get the CBD  –  PLUS all the other cannabinoids  –  when you use our products.  Full Spectrum means that the full spectrum of cannabinoids (like CBC, CBG, CBN, etc) along with all the hundreds of phytonutrients are still in our products.
Over the past two years, 17 states have passed laws legalizing CBD so that patients can obtain the drug without fear of prosecution from local authorities. For intractable childhood epilepsies—the sorts of seizure disorders that for centuries have ruined lives and shattered families, the ones even specialists like Hernandez dread—CBD could be a miracle cure.
Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[33] It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[14] Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogeneticaly to the cannabinoid receptors.[14] In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[34] and this action may be involved in its antidepressant,[35][36] anxiolytic,[36][37] and neuroprotective effects.[38][39] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[40] The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[8]
When you find that sweet spot, consistency is key. A good plan is to stick with your starting dose for 2-3 weeks to see how it affects you before increasing. While some folks might feel a difference right away, others may have to build up to an optimal dose to feel the desired results. Be patient with yourself, and give the product a chance to work.
A CNN program that featured Charlotte's Web cannabis in 2013 brought increased attention to the use of CBD in the treatment of seizure disorders.[64][65] Since then, 16 states have passed laws to allow the use of CBD products (not exceeding a specified concentration of THC) for the treatment of certain medical conditions.[66] This is in addition to the 30 states that have passed comprehensive medical cannabis laws, which allow for the use of cannabis products with no restrictions on THC content.[66] Of these 30 states, eight have legalized the use and sale of cannabis products without requirement for a doctor's recommendation.[66]
Until 2017, products containing cannabidiol that are marketed for medical purposes were classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and could not be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims.[81] CBD oil with THC content not exceeding 0.2% was legalized throughout the UK in 2017.[citation needed] Cannabis oil, however, remained illegal to possess, buy and sell.[82]

A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios.[261] A 2014 Cochrane review found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy to using cannabis to treat schizophrenia or psychosis.[262] As of 2017, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis are under preliminary research.[263]
Whether you’re interested in learning how industrial hemp-derived CBD is made, how it helps patients, or what the future holds for CBD products, share your queries by leaving a comment and your questions will be addressed in future educational pieces about CBD oil. Your questions are important not just for your benefit, but to enrich the minds of patients all around the world. By spreading knowledge and information about cannabis, hemp, CBD, and other cannabinoids, we’re supporting safe growth of the cannabis industry while at the same time educating the masses about a misunderstood plant.

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FDA AND ARE NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, OR CURE ANY DISEASE. ALWAYS CHECK WITH YOUR PHYSICIAN BEFORE STARTING A NEW DIETARY SUPPLEMENT PROGRAM. LEAVING OUR WEBSITE DISCLAIMER: IF WE HAVE A RESEARCH LINK TO A WEBSITE WHERE WE SELL PRODUCTS OR HAVE PRODUCT INFORMATION, THE EXIT DISCLAIMER INDICATES THAT WHEN YOU CLICK OK YOU WILL LEAVE THE HEMPMEDSPX.COM WEBSITE AND VISIT AN EXTERNAL LINK. LINKS TO ANY INFORMATIONAL WEBSITES ARE PROVIDED SOLELY AS A SERVICE TO OUR USERS. EXTERNAL LINKS PROVIDE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE USEFUL OR INTERESTING AND HAS NO AFFILIATION TO THE PROMOTION, SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF HEMPMEDS PRODUCTS. THE LINK DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN ENDORSEMENT OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS BY HEMPMEDS AND NONE SHOULD BE INFERRED. PLEASE VIEW OUR FULL TERMS OF USE AGREEMENT FOR MORE INFORMATION AND THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS GOVERNING YOUR USE OF THIS SITE.
At least one benefit of CBD is well-supported by science: It can be effective in treating children with rare, genetic seizure disorders. Adults, children and even animals with epilepsy have been shown to benefit from the chemical too, the World Health Organization reports. There's also some evidence that CBD can help with anxiety, says Dr. Robert Carson, an assistant professor of neurology and pediatrics at Vanderbilt University who focuses on children with epilepsy. "In children, especially those with autism spectrum disorders, this may manifest as improved interactions with others," he says. Other preliminary research shows CBD holds promise for conditions including Alzheimer's disease, cancer, psychosis and Parkinson's disease – and is pretty much impossible to abuse or become addicted to, WHO says.

In December 2013, Uruguay became the first country to legalize growing, sale and use of cannabis.[214] After a long delay in implementing the retail component of the law, in 2017 sixteen pharmacies were authorized to sell cannabis commercially.[215] On June 19, 2018, the Canadian Senate passed a bill and the Prime Minister announced the effective legalization date as October 17, 2018.[37][216] Canada is the second nation to legalize the drug.[217]


Pure hemp cannabidiol oil can be consumed directly as a nutritional supplement. Over the years, great advances in CBD hemp oil product development have led to what are now dozens of different types of CBD hemp oil products, including capsules, drops, and even chewing gum. Concentrated pure CBD hemp oil can also be infused into skin and body care products and used topically.
How do we insure that our CBD rich hemp oil is free of these harmful contaminants? We test. And we test again. We use a highly esteemed laboratory. We test for potency- meaning that we test to insure that our claims are accurate- and we test for a complete profile of biological, heavy metal and pesticide contaminants. We encourage others to do the same.

By the time the government is ready to make its revisions to Quebec’s cannabis legislation, however, the current cannabis panic among its rural and suburban constituents may have died down. Taxes from legalized sales in government stores will be having a calming, if not euphoric, effect on provincial finances. Like cigarettes, booze and lotteries, cannabis will pay for its new acceptability in cash.
Cannabis is frequently used among Sufis[138] – the mystical interpretation of Islam that exerts strong influence over local Muslim practices in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Turkey, and Pakistan. Cannabis preparations are frequently used at Sufi festivals in those countries.[138] Pakistan's Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar in Sindh province is particularly renowned for the widespread use of cannabis at the shrine's celebrations, especially its annual Urs festival and Thursday evening dhamaal sessions - or meditative dancing sessions.[139][140]
In modern times, the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis as a sacrament.[131] Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, a religious movement founded in the United States in 1975 with no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church, consider Cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ.[132] Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis is the Tree of Life.[133][134] Other organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry,[135] Cantheism,[136] the Cannabis Assembly[137] and the Church of Cognizance. Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis use.
Marijuana is the most common illegal drug reported in motor vehicle accidents.[71] A 2012 meta-analysis found that cannabis use was associated with an increased risk of being involved in a motor vehicle crash.[72] A 2016 review also found a statistically significant increase in crash risk associated with marijuana use, but noted that this risk was "of low to medium magnitude."[73] The increase in risk of motor vehicle crash for cannabis use is between 2 and 3 times relative to baseline, whereas that for comparable doses of alcohol is between 6 and 15 times.[74]

Hernandez said interactions between FDA-approved pharmaceuticals and CBD oils are a serious concern. “What we’ve found so far is that [CBD] can actually affect the levels of some of your epilepsy medications,” Hernandez told me. The diarrhea and vomiting associated with CBD oil ingestion can lower the levels of other drugs in patients’ bloodstreams, while the way the body absorbs CBD can raise the levels of certain medications.

Note that the Cannabis sativa L. our growers harvest is a type of carefully cultivated hemp. Hemp is a legal plant that the USDA defines as any Cannabis sativa L. variety containing THC concentrations of no more than 0.3%. This means the plant produces little to no THC, the phyto-cannabinoid found in marijuana that causes a feeling of intoxication.
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